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FREERIDE TOUR VTT 2009 - Compétition de vélo sans reconnaissance !

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Freeride Tour VTT 2009 : compétition de vélo freeride par équipe de 2 avec plus de 90 % de descente, ouverte aux professionnels et aux amateurs. Informations et inscriptions online

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What sets reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (reactive HIPIMs) apart from other physical vapour deposition methods? We'll briefly explain below. What is Physical Vapour Deposition? Physical vapour deposition (PVD) is a broad term describing various processes used to deposit thin films of material onto the surface of an object. PVD involves applying heat to the material so its molecules condense and vaporize, then depositing those molecules onto the surface to create a thin film. What is Magnetron Sputtering? A common PVD process is sputter deposition using a magnetron sputtering machine. In magnetron sputtering, a powerful magnet is placed behind the material that will form the film. When the material (target) is heated and vaporizes, the magnet helps to direct the materials towards the surface (substrate) to be coated. What is Reactive HIPIMs? Reactive HIPIMs is a new PVD technology that uses magnetrons powered by pulsed plasma discharges. Though exploration of this technology is still in its infancy, HIPIMs are already in use in industrial applications to leverage greater control over the composition, microstructure, and optical/mechanical properties of thin films. This technique is gaining ground in fields where traditional magnetron sputtering methods have failed, such as with heat-intolerant materials that are liable to melt with exposure to conventional magnetrons. How does Reactive HIPIMs Differ from Magnetron Sputtering? The notable difference between reactive HIPIMs and magnetron sputtering is the mode of operation. Reactive HIPIMs also uses a magnetron to confine the target molecules to the sputtering area. This magnetron is powered by low-frequency unipolar pulses, leading to a lower target power density. The benefit of this difference is that is helps prevent the magnetron from overheating and melting the target, since the goal is to vaporize the target and create condensation. As a result, the plasma discharge is highly dense and the target material is highly ionized, creating the potential for synthesizing tailor-made thin films. These films also have superior adhesion to the substrate due to the lower deposition temperature. Potential Benefits of Reactive HIPIMs Dense plasma discharge with high degree of ionization Improved thin film adhesion More control over composition and microstructure of thin films Ability to synthesize tailor-made thin films with specific mechanical and optical properties